Press Releases on Original Research Articles
Photon-Based Processing Units Enable More Complex Machine Learning
WASHINGTON, D.C., July 21, 2020 — Machine learning performed by neural networks is a popular approach to developing artificial intelligence, as researchers aim to replicate brain functionalities for a variety of applications.
A paper in the journal Applied Physics Reviews, by AIP Publishing, proposes a new approach to perform computations required by a neural network, using light instead of electricity. In this approach, a photonic tensor core performs multiplications of matrices in parallel, improving speed and efficiency of current deep learning paradigms.
Nanofiber Membranes Transformed Into 3D Scaffolds
WASHINGTON, D.C., May 12, 2020 — In the movie “Transformers,” cars morph into robots, jets or a variety of machinery. A similar concept inspired a group of researchers to combine gas foaming, which is a blend of chemicals that induces gas bubbling, and 3D molding technologies to quickly transform electrospun membranes into complex 3D shapes for biomedical applications.
In Applied Physics Reviews, from AIP Publishing, the group reports on its new approach that demonstrates significant improvements in speed and quality compared with other methods. The work is also the first successful demonstration of formation of 3D neural tissue constructs with an ordered structure through differentiation of human neural progenitor/stem cells on these transformed 3D nanofiber scaffolds.
Identifying Light Sources Using Artificial Intelligence
WASHINGTON, D.C., May 5, 2020 — Identifying sources of light plays an important role in the development of many photonic technologies, such as lidar, remote sensing, and microscopy. Traditionally, identifying light sources as diverse as sunlight, laser radiation, or molecule fluorescence has required millions of measurements, particularly in low-light environments, which limits the realistic implementation of quantum photonic technologies.
In Applied Physics Reviews, from AIP Publishing, researchers demonstrated a smart quantum technology that enables a dramatic reduction in the number of measurements required to identify light sources.
“We trained an artificial neuron with the statistical fluctuations that characterize coherent and thermal light,” said Omar Magana-Loaiza, an author of the paper.
Broadband Enhancement Relies on Precise Tilt
WASHINGTON, D.C., May 5, 2020 — Quantum photonics involves a new type of technology that relies on photons, the elementary particle of light. These photons can potentially carry quantum bits of information over large distances. If the photon source could be placed on a single chip and made to produce photons at a high rate, this could enable high-speed quantum communication or information processing, which would be a major advance in information technologies.
In this week’s issue of Applied Physics Reviews, from AIP Publishing, a simple on-chip photon source using a type of material known as a hyperbolic metamaterial is proposed. The investigators carried out calculations to show that a prototype using the hyperbolic metamaterial arranged in a precise way can overcome problems of low efficiency and allow for high repetition rates for on-chip photon sources.
Until recently, single-photon sources have usually been made from self-assembled quantum dots in semiconductors or from materials, like diamonds, with structural defects. It is difficult, however, to produce single photons at high rates from such materials. Some approaches to remedy this problem have been tried, but so far, the results suffer from a narrow bandwidth and low efficiency.
Emerging Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Devices Based on Silicon Carbide May Revolutionize Power Electronics
WASHINGTON, D.C., April 28, 2020 — Growth of high-quality substrates for microelectronic applications is one of the key elements helping drive society toward a more sustainable green economy. Today, silicon plays a central role within the semiconductor industry for microelectronic and nanoelectronic devices.
Silicon wafers of high purity (99.0% or higher) single-crystalline material can be obtained via a combination of liquid growth methods, such as pulling a seed crystal from the melt and by subsequent epitaxy. The catch is that the former process can’t be used for the growth of silicon carbide (SiC), because it lacks a melting phase.
Inverse Design Software Automates Design Process for Optical, Nanophotonic Structures
WASHINGTON, D.C., March 10, 2020 — Stanford University researchers created an inverse design codebase called SPINS that can help researchers explore different design methodologies to find fabricable optical and nanophotonic structures.
In the journal Applied Physics Reviews, from AIP Publishing, Logan Su and colleagues review inverse design’s potential for optical and nanophotonic structures, as well as present and explain how to use their own inverse design codebase.
“The idea of inverse design is to use more sophisticated optimization algorithms and automate the search for a structure,” Su explained. “The ultimate goal is to have a designer input their desired performance metrics and simply wait for the algorithm to generate the best possible device.”
Simple Self-Charging Battery Offers Power Solutions for Devices
WASHINGTON, D.C., February 25, 2020 — A new type of battery combines negative capacitance and negative resistance within the same cell, allowing the cell to self-charge without losing energy, which has important implications for long-term storage and improved output power for batteries.
These batteries can be used in extremely low-frequency communications and in devices such as blinking lights, electronic beepers, voltage-controlled oscillators, inverters, switching power supplies, digital converters and function generators, and eventually for technologies related to modern computers.
Highly Sensitive Sensors Show Promise in Enhancing Human Touch
WASHINGTON, D.C., February 18, 2020 — People rely on a highly tuned sense of touch to manipulate objects, but injuries to the skin and the simple act of wearing gloves can impair this ability. Surgeons, for example, find that gloves decrease their ability to manipulate soft tissues. Astronauts are also hampered by heavy spacesuits and find it difficult to work with equipment while wearing heavy gloves.
In this week’s issue of Applied Physics Reviews, by AIP Publishing, scientists report the development of a new tactile-enhancement system based on a highly sensitive sensor. The sensor has remarkable sensitivity, allowing the wearer to detect the light brush of a feather, the touch of a flower petal, water droplets falling on a finger and even a wire too small to be seen.
Tiny Magnetic Structures Enhance Medical Science
WASHINGTON, D.C., January 28, 2020 — Small magnetic objects, which have been used successfully in technological applications such as data storage, are showing promise in the biomedical field. Magnetic nanostructures have interesting properties that enhance novel applications in medical diagnosis and allow the exploration of new therapeutic techniques.
Isolating and separating cells from a blood or tissue sample is crucial for a variety of medical applications, such as gene therapy or cancer diagnosis and treatment. Standard procedures involve filtration and centrifugation, but cells of similar sizes or densities cannot be separated this way.
Communications Device Offers Huge Bandwidth Potential
WASHINGTON, D.C., December 10, 2019 — Scientists at the University of Illinois have created sugar cube-sized blocks of an electromagnetic material with potential to transform communication networks.
Several countries are building futuristic communication systems using higher frequency electromagnetic waves to transfer more data at faster rates, but they have lacked network components to handle these higher bandwidths. Researcher J. Gary Eden proved his new device can rapidly switch functionality to perform the varied tasks needed to support a network with carrier frequencies of over 100 gigahertz. The miniscule-scale architecture concealed within the sugar cube blocks is described in Applied Physics Reviews, from AIP Publishing.
Ternary Acceptor and Donor Materials Increase Photon Harvesting in Organic Solar Cells
WASHINGTON, D.C., November 26, 2019 — Organic solar cells are steadily improving as new materials are developed for the active layer, particularly when materials are stacked in a bulk heterojunction design that takes advantage of multiple combined absorption windows to use photons at more parts of the spectrum.
Non-fullerene materials are especially promising in binary organic solar cells, making it possible to tune optical and energy properties. But, despite their advantages, these materials have narrow absorption windows. Attempts to incorporate non-fullerene acceptors into organic solar cells include adding a third component to increase photon harvesting.
3D Printing, Bioinks Create Implantable Blood Vessels
WASHINGTON, D.C., October 22, 2019 — A biomimetic blood vessel was fabricated using a modified 3D cell printing technique and bioinks, which were formulated from smooth muscle cells from a human aorta and endothelial cells from an umbilical vein. The result is a fully functional blood vessel with a dual-layer architecture that outperforms existing engineered tissue and brings 3D-printed blood vessels several fundamental steps closer to clinical use…..
Creating Miracles with Polymeric Fibers
WASHINGTON, D.C., October 15, 2019 — “Polymers are very, very useful materials when it comes to modern applications.”
Mohan Edirisinghe leads a team of researchers at University College London studying the fabrication of polymeric nanofibers and microfibers — very thin fibers made up of polymers. The group describes a study comparing fabrication techniques for these fibers without the use of electric fields in Applied Physics Reviews, from AIP Publishing….
Treating Solar Cell Materials Reveals Formation of Unexpected Microstructures
WASHINGTON, D.C., July 30, 2019 — Recent advances in solar cell technology use polycrystalline perovskite films as the active layer, with an increase to efficiency of as much as 24.2%. Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites are especially successful, and they have been used in optoelectronic devices including solar cells, photodetectors, light-emitting diodes and lasers…
Improving Efficiency, Brightness of Perovskite LEDs
WASHINGTON, D.C., July 30, 2019 — Advances in organic phosphorescent materials are opening new opportunities for organic light-emitting diodes for combined electronics and light applications, including solar cells, photodiodes, optical fibers and lasers…
Meet the Editor
Luigi Longobardi, Executive Editor
Luigi is a physicist by training, an editor at heart, and can bake an amazing loaf of sourdough bread. Before joining AIP Publishing, Luigi spent six years at the American Physical Society where he was the Assistant Editorial Director and where he worked on Physical Review B and Physical Review X and launched Physical Review Fluids and Physical Review Materials. Luigi received a Ph.D. in physics from Stony Brook University and was subsequently a Marie Curie Researcher in Napoli and then a Research Associate at Dartmouth College.
Yujun Wang, a table tennis enthusiast, knows just how important it is to respond to a serve with the appropriate speed and direction. This skill translates well to handling the influx of manuscript submissions to APR. Yujun received his Ph.D. from Kansas State University, and subsequently was a research associate at JILA, University of Colorado Boulder and NIST, followed by one year at JQI, University of Maryland and NIST. Yujun has also served as an Associate Editor for Physical Review A where he managed the peer review of manuscripts in areas of atomic, molecular, and optical physics.
Speed is important to Alina! That’s because in addition to science, she is an avid speed skater! She brings that passion for velocity and focused attention to APR’s original research manuscripts.
Alina received her Ph.D. from the University of Birmingham in the UK. She has held research positions at CNRS-CRISMAT in Caen, France, at the University of Texas in San Antonio, and more recently at the University of Maryland and NIST prior to joining AIP Publishing.
Her background is in electron microscopy and nanoscale physics, and she brings this expertise as well as an overall joy of science and positive energy to the in-house editorial team handling peer review for APR.
2019 Journal Citation Reports® (Clarivate, 2020)*